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The Theory of Evolution: Science or Human Ego?

It is old, old and exhausted. After spending billions and billions of years using its energy to build stars, planets, and the stuff of life; the universe is collapsing. The ever present pull of gravity has won and the matter and energy that makes up its mass is falling into an ever strengthening singularity. The increasing pressure and heat causes the frozen energy called matter to melt and combine with fluid energy until the entire mass of the universe has collapsed (the Big Crunch) into a singularity (black hole), a pinpoint of pure energy somewhere in the now absolute vacuum of never ending space. Then, at some later time, the singularity explodes (the Big Bang) and blasts its energy into the absolute vacuum of space, spreading out until it cools enough for energy once more to freeze into matter (98% hydrogen and 2% helium and other simple elements). The elements swirl and coalesce to form giant stars whose cores fuse at hyper-fast rates until they collapse, sending a n unimaginably strong wave of energy through their outer layers. That wave of energy blasts the star’s plasma into open space, instantaneously fusing the plasma into dust clouds of heavier elements necessary for the formation of planets and life itself. But, there are problems with The Theory of Evolution.

The first problem with The Theory of Evolution is the collapse of the universe. In 1929, Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe is still expanding (Bennett 646). Further research over almost seven decades demonstrated that not only was the universe still expanding but that it was expanding at an accelerating rate (Weintraub 257). Since matter cannot accelerate without energy being applied, the conclusion was that some form of “dark energy” exists and that it is causing the galaxies to move away from each other faster and faster (Weintraub 259). It was already known that light and dark matter make up only about 25% of the universe’s critical density mass (Bennett 718). It was then calculated that dark energy would have to make up about 70% of the mass of the universe in order for its expansion to accelerate against the attraction of gravity (Dark). Which raises the question: how can the universe collapse when dark energy can overpower gravity and cause the univer se’s expansion to accelerate?

The second problem with The Theory of Evolution has to do with the expansion of the universe. Even if there were no dark energy to prevent the universe from collapsing, the expansion of the universe is equally problematic. As enigmatic as singularities are it is well known that their gravity is one of the most powerful forces in the universe. According to Richard Wolfson “Because light can’t escape a black hole, and since no material object can go faster than light, that means nothing whatsoever can escape the hole” ( 218). Which raises the question: if a singularity’s gravity is so strong that nothing whatsoever can escape it, how is it possible for the big bang expansion or any other type of expansion of a universe size singularity to occur?

The third problem with The Theory of Evolution has to do with the formation of stars. According to fluid mechanics, specifically the expansion of an ideal gas into a vacuum, the formation of stars should be impossible. The laws of fluid mechanics says that when an ideal gas is released into a vacuum the gas will rush into the vacuum until the pressure, moles of gas, and the temperature are the same throughout. (Penn) Once the mass of the universe collapses into a singularity, the space beyond the singularity will be an absolute vacuum. Even if the energy necessary for the big bang comes from another dimension, the universe’s energy will be expanding into the vacuum and, when the universe’s energy cools enough to form into hydrogen and helium; it will still be subject to the laws of fluid mechanics which would make the formation of stars impossible. Which raises the question: if the formation of stars is impossible then how is the formation of the heavier elements nec essary for planets and life possible?

The fourth problem with The Theory of Evolution has to do with probability. Sir Roger Penrose, a member of the Order of Merit and a Fellow of The Royal Society, an English mathematical physicist and Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at the Mathematical Institute of the University of Oxford and an Emeritus Fellow of Wadham College. He has received a number of prizes and awards, including the 1988 Wolf Prize for physics which he shared with Stephen Hawking for their contribution to our understanding of the universe and is renowned for his work in mathematical physics, in particular his contributions to general relativity and cosmology; calculated the odds of the universe forming as it is known today. In his book “The Emperor’s New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics,” Sir Roger Penrose gives the odds at 1 in 10 to the power of 10 to the power of 128 (344). According to Penrose:

“This is an extraordinary figure. One could not possibly even write the number down in full, in ordinary denary notation: it would be ‘1’ followed by 10 128 successive ‘0’! Even if we were to write a ‘0’ on each separate proton and each separate neutron in the universe – and we could throw in all the other particles as well for good measure – we should fall far short of writing down the figure needed. (344)”

One could look from the beginning to the end of The Theory of Evolution and find fatal flaws with the theory but, without the collapse or expansion of the universe and without the formation of the giant stars that are necessary for the formation of heavier elements, all the rest of the theory is obviously scientifically impossible. Which raises the question: what would it take for The Theory of Evolution to work? Since everything in the universe is made of energy, it would take energy to make The Theory of Evolution work. It would take a form of energy, more powerful than dark energy, which could periodically reach out and force the universe to collapse. It would take a form of energy, more powerful than the gravity of a universe size singularity, which could neutralize its gravity so the universe could explode into space. It would take a form of energy, capable of overcoming the laws of fluid mechanics, which could force matter to coalesce into giant stars. It would ta ke some form of energy, capable of overcoming entropy and the natural degeneracy of matter, which could force the elements to come together in the complex molecules necessary for life to develop. Without that energy, the odds against The Theory of Evolution are bigger than the universe. To paraphrase the most important and most ignored principle of the scientific method; if the evidence does not support the theory, you change the theory so it supports the evidence.

Works Cited

Bennett, Jeffrey, et al. The Cosmic Perspective, Fifth Edition. San Francisco: Pearson, 2008

“Dark Energy, Dark Matter”. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 25 June 2011

Penn State Department of Chemistry in the Eberly College of Science. 26 June 2011

Penrose, Roger. The Emperor’s New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and The Laws of Physics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990

Weintraub, David. How Old is The Universe. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011

Wolfson, Richard. Simply Einstein: Relativity Demystified, First Edition. W. W. Norton and Company, 2003

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The Theory of Evolution: Science or Human Ego?

It is old, old and exhausted. After spending billions and billions of years using its energy to build stars, planets, and the stuff of life; the universe is collapsing. The ever present pull of gravity has won and the matter and energy that makes up its mass is falling into an ever strengthening singularity. The increasing pressure and heat causes the frozen energy called matter to melt and combine with fluid energy until the entire mass of the universe has collapsed (the Big Crunch) into a singularity (black hole), a pinpoint of pure energy somewhere in the now absolute vacuum of never ending space. Then, at some later time, the singularity explodes (the Big Bang) and blasts its energy into the absolute vacuum of space, spreading out until it cools enough for energy once more to freeze into matter (98% hydrogen and 2% helium and other simple elements). The elements swirl and coalesce to form giant stars whose cores fuse at hyper-fast rates until they collapse, sending a n unimaginably strong wave of energy through their outer layers. That wave of energy blasts the star’s plasma into open space, instantaneously fusing the plasma into dust clouds of heavier elements necessary for the formation of planets and life itself. But, there are problems with The Theory of Evolution.

The first problem with The Theory of Evolution is the collapse of the universe. In 1929, Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe is still expanding (Bennett 646). Further research over almost seven decades demonstrated that not only was the universe still expanding but that it was expanding at an accelerating rate (Weintraub 257). Since matter cannot accelerate without energy being applied, the conclusion was that some form of “dark energy” exists and that it is causing the galaxies to move away from each other faster and faster (Weintraub 259). It was already known that light and dark matter make up only about 25% of the universe’s critical density mass (Bennett 718). It was then calculated that dark energy would have to make up about 70% of the mass of the universe in order for its expansion to accelerate against the attraction of gravity (Dark). Which raises the question: how can the universe collapse when dark energy can overpower gravity and cause the univer se’s expansion to accelerate?

The second problem with The Theory of Evolution has to do with the expansion of the universe. Even if there were no dark energy to prevent the universe from collapsing, the expansion of the universe is equally problematic. As enigmatic as singularities are it is well known that their gravity is one of the most powerful forces in the universe. According to Richard Wolfson “Because light can’t escape a black hole, and since no material object can go faster than light, that means nothing whatsoever can escape the hole” ( 218). Which raises the question: if a singularity’s gravity is so strong that nothing whatsoever can escape it, how is it possible for the big bang expansion or any other type of expansion of a universe size singularity to occur?

The third problem with The Theory of Evolution has to do with the formation of stars. According to fluid mechanics, specifically the expansion of an ideal gas into a vacuum, the formation of stars should be impossible. The laws of fluid mechanics says that when an ideal gas is released into a vacuum the gas will rush into the vacuum until the pressure, moles of gas, and the temperature are the same throughout. (Penn) Once the mass of the universe collapses into a singularity, the space beyond the singularity will be an absolute vacuum. Even if the energy necessary for the big bang comes from another dimension, the universe’s energy will be expanding into the vacuum and, when the universe’s energy cools enough to form into hydrogen and helium; it will still be subject to the laws of fluid mechanics which would make the formation of stars impossible. Which raises the question: if the formation of stars is impossible then how is the formation of the heavier elements nec essary for planets and life possible?

The fourth problem with The Theory of Evolution has to do with probability. Sir Roger Penrose, a member of the Order of Merit and a Fellow of The Royal Society, an English mathematical physicist and Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at the Mathematical Institute of the University of Oxford and an Emeritus Fellow of Wadham College. He has received a number of prizes and awards, including the 1988 Wolf Prize for physics which he shared with Stephen Hawking for their contribution to our understanding of the universe and is renowned for his work in mathematical physics, in particular his contributions to general relativity and cosmology; calculated the odds of the universe forming as it is known today. In his book “The Emperor’s New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics,” Sir Roger Penrose gives the odds at 1 in 10 to the power of 10 to the power of 128 (344). According to Penrose:

“This is an extraordinary figure. One could not possibly even write the number down in full, in ordinary denary notation: it would be ‘1’ followed by 10 128 successive ‘0’! Even if we were to write a ‘0’ on each separate proton and each separate neutron in the universe – and we could throw in all the other particles as well for good measure – we should fall far short of writing down the figure needed. (344)”

One could look from the beginning to the end of The Theory of Evolution and find fatal flaws with the theory but, without the collapse or expansion of the universe and without the formation of the giant stars that are necessary for the formation of heavier elements, all the rest of the theory is obviously scientifically impossible. Which raises the question: what would it take for The Theory of Evolution to work? Since everything in the universe is made of energy, it would take energy to make The Theory of Evolution work. It would take a form of energy, more powerful than dark energy, which could periodically reach out and force the universe to collapse. It would take a form of energy, more powerful than the gravity of a universe size singularity, which could neutralize its gravity so the universe could explode into space. It would take a form of energy, capable of overcoming the laws of fluid mechanics, which could force matter to coalesce into giant stars. It would ta ke some form of energy, capable of overcoming entropy and the natural degeneracy of matter, which could force the elements to come together in the complex molecules necessary for life to develop. Without that energy, the odds against The Theory of Evolution are bigger than the universe. To paraphrase the most important and most ignored principle of the scientific method; if the evidence does not support the theory, you change the theory so it supports the evidence.

Works Cited

Bennett, Jeffrey, et al. The Cosmic Perspective, Fifth Edition. San Francisco: Pearson, 2008

“Dark Energy, Dark Matter”. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 25 June 2011

Penn State Department of Chemistry in the Eberly College of Science. 26 June 2011

Penrose, Roger. The Emperor’s New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and The Laws of Physics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990

Weintraub, David. How Old is The Universe. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011

Wolfson, Richard. Simply Einstein: Relativity Demystified, First Edition. W. W. Norton and Company, 2003

 

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